Depressive symptoms that occur in both midlife and late-life are associated with an increased risk of developing vascular dementia, while symptoms that occur in late-life only are more likely to be early signs of Alzheimer's disease, according to University of California at San Francisco and Kaiser Permanente researchers.
The study, which appears in the current issue of the Archives of General Psychiatry, examines whether midlife or late-life depression is more likely to lead to either Alzheimer's disease or vascular dementia in the long term. The researchers explain that vascular dementia, the second most common type of dementia, develops when impaired blood flow to parts of the brain deprives cells of nutrients and oxygen.
"The findings have important public health implications because they raise hope that adequate treatment of depression in midlife may reduce dementia risk, particularly vascular dementia, later in life," said Rachel Whitmer, PhD, a research scientist at the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Division of Research and the principal investigator of the study.
UCSF and Kaiser Permanente investigators examined the association between depressive symptoms and dementia over the course of 45 years in a longitudinal study of more than 13,000 long-term members of the Kaiser Permanente Northern California integrated care delivery system.
Though the scientists advise more research is needed, the findings suggest that depression that begins in late-life may be an early symptom of Alzheimer's disease, while chronic depression over the life course may reflect a long-term process of changes to blood flow in the brain associated with increased risk of vascular dementia.